جميع المواضيع المتعلقة بـ ‘acid’

 

Acidic Salt

Salt in which there is only partial replacement of the acidic hydrogen of an acid by metal or other cations. For polybasic acids the formulae are of the type NaHSO₄ (sodium hydrogensulfate) and Na₃H(CO₃)₂.2H₂O (sodium sesquicarbonate). For monobasic acids such as HF the acid salts are of the form KHF2 (potassium hydrogen fluoride). Although the latter were at one time formulated as a normal salt plus excess acid…

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STRONG AND WEAK ACIDS

Strong acids

Explaining the term “strong acid”

We are going to use the Bronsted-Lowry definition of an acid.

When an acid dissolves in water, a proton (hydrogen ion) is transferred to a water molecule to produce a hydroxonium ion and a negative ion depending on what acid you are starting from.

In the general case . . .

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Ascorbic Acid

Ascorbic acid A white, crystalline compound, also known as vitamin C. It is highly soluble in water, which is a stronger reducing agent than the hexose sugars, which it resembles chemically. Vitamin C deficiency in humans has been known for centuries as scurvy.The compound has the structural formula shown below.

The stability of ascorbic acid decreases with increases in temperature…

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Acid Halid

One of a large group of organic substances possessing the halocar­bonyl group,

in which X stands for fluorine, chlorine, bromine, or iodine. The terms acyl and aroyl halides refer to aliphatic or aromatic derivatives, respectively.

The great inherent reactivity of acid halides precludes their free existence in nature; all are made by synthetic processes. In general, acid…

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Acid base indicators

A substance that reveals, through characteristic color changes, the degree of acidity or basicity of solutions. Indicators are weak organic acids or bases which exist in more than one structural form (tautomers) of which at least one form is colored. Intense color is desirable so that very little indicator is needed; the indicator itself will thus not affect the acidity of the solution.

Acid-base indicators are commonly employed…

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Acetic Acid

A colorless, pungent liquid, CH3COOH, melting at 16. 7°C and boil­ing at 118.0°C. Acetic acid is the sour principle in vinegar. Concentrated acid is called glacial acetic acid because of its readiness to crystallize at cool temperatures.

Acetic acid is manufactured by three main routes: butane liquid-phase catalytic ox­idation in acetic acid solvent, palladium-copper salt-catalyzed oxidation of ethylene in aqueous solution, and methanol carbonylation in the presence of…

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Acid anhydride

One of an important class of reactive organic compounds de­rived from acids via formal intermolecular dehydration.

Anhydrides of straight-chain acids containing from 2 to 12 carbon atoms are liquids with boiling points higher than those of the parent acids. They are relatively insoluble in cold water and are soluble in alcohol, ether, and other common organic solvents. The lower members are pungent, corrosive, and weakly lacrimatory.

Anhydrides from…

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Introduction to Organic chemistry: Chapter 2 NOTES

Introduction to Organic chemistry: Chapter 2 NOTES Acids and Bases

A great many organic reactions are acid–base reactions. Many organic reactions are catalyzed by proton-donating acids, such as H3O+ and CH3OH2+. Others are catalyzed by Lewis acids, such as AlCl3 .

2.1 What Are Arrhenius Acids and Bases? According to Arrhenius definitions, an acid is a substance that dissolves in water to produce H+ ions, and a base…

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ملخص الفصل الرابع عشر :الحموض و القواعد من كتاب الكيمياء للعالم زومدال Chapter 14 notes:Acids and Bases, Chemistry Zumdahl

ملخص الفصل الرابع عشر :الحموض و القواعد من كتاب الكيمياء للعالم زومدال Chapter 14 notes:Acids and Bases, Chemistry Zumdahl

الكيمياء العامة 2 ، الكيمياء العامة 102 ، General Chemistry

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ملخص الفصل الرابع :أنواع التفاعلات الكيميائية و العلاقات الكمية للمحاليل من كتاب الكيمياء للعالم زومدال Chapter 4 notes: Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry , Chemistry Zumdahl

ملخص الفصل الرابع :أنواع التفاعلات الكيميائية و العلاقات الكمية للمحاليل من كتاب الكيمياء للعالم زومدال Chapter 4 notes: Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry , Chemistry Zumdahl

الكيمياء العامة 1 ، الكيمياء العامة 101 ، General Chemistry

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