Hybridization :  is a mathematical concept which implies for the mixing of various atomic orbitals with slightly different energies of the same atom to construct equal number of hybrid (mixed) orbitals of equal energy, in a molecule. For an isolated atom, however. the hybridization has no meaning. Hybridization involves promotion of electron from a lower energy state to a higher energy state and the desired mixing of the atomic orbitals. The energy required to promote the electron is supplied by the energy released in the chemical bond formation between the atoms.

sp-hybridization: When one s and one p half-filled orbitals are hybridized (mixed) two sp hybrid orbitals are formed these are oppositely directed along a straight line as shown; The two un-hybridized p-orbitals are perpendicular to each other.

Sp2 hybridization: When one e and two p atomic half-filled orbitals of an atom are hybridized, three equivalent orbitals known as sp2 hybrid orbitals are formed. The un-­hybridized .’P orbital remains as pure. In any type of combination, the nature of bond resulting due to overlap of this. Un-hybridized p-orbital is different than those resulting from the overlap of hybrid orbitals. The three sp-hybrid orbitals are directed towards the corner of an equilateral triangle, thus extending an angle of 120°.   1

Sp3 hybridization: When one sand three p half-filled orbitals are mixed, four equivalent hybrid orbitals are genera­ted. These are called sp3 hybrid orbitals. These four equivalent hybrid orbitals are shown. These are directed towards the corner of a tetrahedron. The chemical bonds formed as a result of the overlapping of sp3 hybrid orbi­tals and the other orbitals are called a bonds.

The sp hybridization scheme. The sp2 hybridization scheme The sp3 hybridization scheme2.

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عن Akram Amir El Ali

استاذ الكيمياء التحليلية ومصمم غرافيك

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