الرئيسية » Simplified Chemistry (صفحه 3)

Simplified Chemistry

Benzaldehyde (Benzenecarbaldehyde)

A yellow organic oil with a formula C7H6O2 and with a distinct almondlike odor. The molecular weight is  and density 1.2659 g/cm3  , melting point is 122 °C . Benzaldehyde undergoes the reactions characteristic of aldehydes and may be synthesized in the laboratory by the usual methods of aldehyde synthesis. It is used as a food flavoring …

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Beckmann thermometer

A type of thermometer designed to measure differences in temperature rather than scale degrees. Beckmann thermometers have a larger bulb than common thermometers and a stem with a small internal diameter, so that a range of 5°C covers about 30 centimeters in the stem. The mercury bulb is connected to …

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Batch process

A manufacturing process in which the reactants are fed into the process in fixed quantities (batches), rather than in a continuous flow. At any particular instant all the material, from its preparation to the final product, has reached a definite stage in the process. Baking a cake is an example …

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Bessemer process

A process for making steel from pig iron. A vertical cylindrical steel vessel (converter) is used, lined with a refractory material. Air is blown through the molten iron and carbon is oxidized and thus removed from the iron. Other impurities – silicon, sulfur, and phosphorus – are also oxidized. Irons containing large amounts of phosphorus are treated in a …

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important barium compound

Barium carbonate (BaCO₃), molecular weight: 197.34 g/mol  , density: 4.286 g/cm3 , melting point: 811 °C .  It is a white insoluble salt that occurs naturally as the mineral witherite. Barium carbonate can be readily precipitated by adding an alkali carbonate to a barium salt solution. On heating it decomposes reversibly with the formation of the oxide and …

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Banana bond

1. In strained-ring compounds the angles assumed on the basis of hybridization are often not equal to the angles obtained by joining the atomic centers. In these cases it is sometimes assumed that the bonding orbital is bent or banana-like in shape. Cyclopropane is an example, in which geometric considerations …

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Auger effect

An effect in which an excited ion decays by emission of an electron (rather than a photon). For example, if a substance is bombarded by high-energy electrons or gamma rays, an electron from an inner shell may be ejected. The result is a positive ion in an excited state. This …

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Aufbau Principle

A principle that governs the order in which the atomic orbitals are filled in elements of successive proton number; i.e. a statement of the order of increasing energy. The order is as follows: 1s², 2s², 2p⁶, 3s², 3p6, 4s², 3d¹⁰, 4p⁶, 5s², 4d¹⁰, 5p⁶, 6s², 4f¹⁴, 5d¹⁰, 6p⁶, 7s², 5f¹⁴, 6d¹⁰ (the superscript indicates the maximum number of …

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Arrhenius equation

An equation relating the rate constant of a  chemical reaction and the temperature at which the reaction is taking place: k = Aexp(–Ea/RT) where A is a constant, k the rate constant, T the thermodynamic temperature in kelvins, R the gas constant, and Ea the activation energy of the reaction. Reactions proceed at different rates at different temperatures, …

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