Simplified Chemistry


Bleaching powder

Bleaching powder: A white solid that can be regarded as a mixture of calcium chlorate(I) (calcium hypochlorite), calcium chloride, and calcium hydroxide. It is prepared on a large scale by passing a current of chlorine through a tilted cylinder down which is passed calcium hydroxide. Bleaching powder has been used for bleaching paper pulps and fabrics and for sterilizing water. Its bleaching power arises from the formation, in…

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Blast Furnace

A furnace for producing iron from iron(III) oxide. A mixture of the ore with coke and a flux is heated by preheated air blown into the bottom of the furnace. The flux is often calcium oxide (from limestone). Molten pig iron is run off from the bottom of the furnace.

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Birkeland–Eyde process

An industrial process for fixing nitrogen (as nitrogen monoxide) by passing air through an electric arc.

It is one of the first processes to take place while manufacturing nitrogen based fertilizers. It was developed by Norwegian physicist and chemist Kristian Olaf Bernhard Birkeland (1867–1917) and the Norwegian engineer and industrialist Samuel Eyde (1866–1940). First an Electric Arc was formed between two coaxial electrodes. and through the use…

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A chemical element, symbol Bh, atomic number 107. Bohrium was synthesized and identified in 1981 by using the Universal Linear Accelerator (UNILAC) of the Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI) at Darmstadt, West Germany, by a team led by P. Armbruster and G. Muzenberq. The reaction used to produce the element was proposed and applied in 1976 by Y. T. Oganessian and colleagues at Dubna Laboratories in Russia. A ²⁰⁹Bi…

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Important bismuth compounds

Bismuth(III) carbonate dioxide : (bismuthyl carbonate; Bi2O2CO3) A white solid prepared by mixing solutions of bismuth nitrate and ammonium carbonate. It contains the (BiO)+ ion.

Bismuth(III) chloride (bismuth trichloride; BiCl3) A white deliquescent solid. It can be prepared by direct combination of bismuth and chlorine. Bismuth(III) chloride dissolves in excess dilute hydrochloric acid to form a clear liquid, but if diluted it produces a…

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important beryllium compounds

Beryllium carbonate (BeCO₃) , molecular weight: 69.021 g/mol , melting point: 54 °C  . It is An unstable solid prepared by prolonged treatment of a suspension of beryllium hydroxide with carbon dioxide. The resulting solution is evaporated and filtered in an atmosphere of carbon dioxide. This compound is toxic, Irritant and dangerous for the environment. Beryllium chloride (BeCl₂), molecular weight 79.9182 g/mol , density 1.899 g/cm², melting point 399 °C . It…

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Benzaldehyde (Benzenecarbaldehyde)

A yellow organic oil with a formula C7H6O2 and with a distinct almondlike odor. The molecular weight is  and density 1.2659 g/cm3  , melting point is 122 °C . Benzaldehyde undergoes the reactions characteristic of aldehydes and may be synthesized in the laboratory by the usual methods of aldehyde synthesis. It is used as a food flavoring and in the manufacture of dyes and antibiotics, and can be readily manufactured by the chlorination…

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Beckmann thermometer

A type of thermometer designed to measure differences in temperature rather than scale degrees. Beckmann thermometers have a larger bulb than common thermometers and a stem with a small internal diameter, so that a range of 5°C covers about 30 centimeters in the stem. The mercury bulb is connected to the stem in such a way that the bulk of the mercury can be separated from the stem…

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Batch process

A manufacturing process in which the reactants are fed into the process in fixed quantities (batches), rather than in a continuous flow. At any particular instant all the material, from its preparation to the final product, has reached a definite stage in the process. Baking a cake is an example of a batch process. Such processes present problems of automation and instrumentation and tend to be wasteful of…

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Bessemer process

A process for making steel from pig iron. A vertical cylindrical steel vessel (converter) is used, lined with a refractory material. Air is blown through the molten iron and carbon is oxidized and thus removed from the iron. Other impurities – silicon, sulfur, and phosphorus – are also oxidized. Irons containing large amounts of phosphorus are treated in a converter lined with a basic material, so that a phosphate slag…

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