الرئيسية » Simplified Chemistry (صفحه 19)

Simplified Chemistry

anabolic steroids

Steroid hor­mones related to the male sex hor­mone testosterone. They promote the development of masculine char­acteristics and increase muscle growth. Anabolic steroids have been used medically for various conditions but are also used illegally by sports­men and women and by body­builders. They have a number of deleterious side effects and …

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amperometric titration

amperometric titration : A method of determining the chemical composition of a solution by measur­ing the current passing through a cell containing the solution; the po­tential is held constant during the titration for both the indicator and reference electrodes, with changes in the current being measured. The cur­rent flowing through …

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ammonia clock

ammonia clock A form of atomic clock in which the frequency of a quartz oscillator is controlled by the vibrations of excited ammonia molecules. The ammonia molecule (NH3) consists of a pyramid with a ni­trogen atom at the apex and one hy­drogen atom at each corner of the triangular base. …

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alternant

Describing a conjugated molecule in which the atoms can be divided into two sets of alternate atoms such that no atom has a direct link to another atom in the same set. Naphthalene, for example, has an al­ternant conjugated system.

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alpha helix

The most common form of secondary structure in pro­teins, in which the polypeptide chain is coiled into a helix. The helical structure is held in place by weak hy­drogen bonds between the N-H and C=O groups in successive turns of the helix.

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باربيتورات barbiturate

أي من مجموعة من الأدوية المشتقة من حمض الباربيتوريك التي لها تأثير مثبط للجهاز العصبي المركزي. كانت الباربيتورات تستخدم في الأصل كمهدئات وحبوب منومة ولكن استخدامها السريري محدود الآن بسبب آثارها الجانبية السامة ؛ حيث يمكن أن يؤدي الاستخدام المطول إلى الإدمان. فالباربيتورات المحددة في الاستخدام السريري تشمل الفينوباربيتون ، …

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Barbier-Wieland degradation

The stepwise degradation of a car­boxylic acid to the next lower homo­logue. First the ester is converted into a tertiary alcohol using a Grig­nard reagent (PhMgX) and acid (HX): RCH2COOCH3 → RCH2C(OH)Ph2 The secondary alcohol is then dehy­drated using ethanoic anhydride (CH3COOCOCH3) to give an alkene: RCH2C(OH)Ph2 → RCH=CPh2 The …

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baking powder

baking powder A mixture of pow­dered compounds added to dough or cake mixture to make it rise in cook­ing. It is used as a substitute for yeast in bread-making. Baking powders consist of a source of carbon dioxide, such as sodium hydrogencarbonate or ammonium hydrogencarbonate, and an acidic substance such …

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Baeyer-Villiger reaction

A re­arrangement reaction, sometimes known as the Dakin reaction, com­monly used in organic synthesis in which a ketone reacts with a peroxy acid to form an ester. For example, R-CO-R → R-CO-O-R The reaction is equivalent to the in­sertion of an oxygen atom next to the ketone’s carbonyl (>C=O) group. …

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