Simplified Chemistry

 

الغازات النبيلة (الغازات الخاملة)

مقدمة الغازات النبيلة أو الغازات الخاملة هي العناصر التي توجد في المجموعة الثامنة عشر من الجدول الدوري و تشمل الهيليوم He ، النيون Ne و الأرجون Ar و الكربتون Kr والزينون Xe و الرادون Rn، و هي جميعا تنتمي إلى القطاع p من الجدول الدوري. و تتميز بأن عدد الإلكترونات في الأفلاك s و p تكون مكتملة.

الخصائص العامة 1 – توجد هذا الغازات بنسب ضئيلة جدا، و عليه يمكن تحضيرها بالتقطير…

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borax-bead test

A preliminary test in qualitative inorganic analysis that can be a guide to the presence of certain metals. A small loop is made in the end of a platinum or Nichrome wire and heated in a Bunsen flame until red hot. It is then dipped into powdered borax, and the adhering solid is held in the hottest part of the flame where it swells…

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boiling-point-composition diagram

A diagram for a two-component liquid system representing both the variation of the boiling point and the composition of the vapor phase as the liquid-phase composition is varied. A mixture of A and B at composition L₁ would have a boiling point T₁ and a vapor composition V₁, which when condensed would give a liquid at L₂. L₂ would boil at T₂…

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Bleaching powder

Bleaching powder: A white solid that can be regarded as a mixture of calcium chlorate(I) (calcium hypochlorite), calcium chloride, and calcium hydroxide. It is prepared on a large scale by passing a current of chlorine through a tilted cylinder down which is passed calcium hydroxide. Bleaching powder has been used for bleaching paper pulps and fabrics and for sterilizing water. Its bleaching power arises from the formation, in…

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Blast Furnace

A furnace for producing iron from iron(III) oxide. A mixture of the ore with coke and a flux is heated by preheated air blown into the bottom of the furnace. The flux is often calcium oxide (from limestone). Molten pig iron is run off from the bottom of the furnace.

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Birkeland–Eyde process

An industrial process for fixing nitrogen (as nitrogen monoxide) by passing air through an electric arc.

It is one of the first processes to take place while manufacturing nitrogen based fertilizers. It was developed by Norwegian physicist and chemist Kristian Olaf Bernhard Birkeland (1867–1917) and the Norwegian engineer and industrialist Samuel Eyde (1866–1940). First an Electric Arc was formed between two coaxial electrodes. and through the use…

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Bohrium

A chemical element, symbol Bh, atomic number 107. Bohrium was synthesized and identified in 1981 by using the Universal Linear Accelerator (UNILAC) of the Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI) at Darmstadt, West Germany, by a team led by P. Armbruster and G. Muzenberq. The reaction used to produce the element was proposed and applied in 1976 by Y. T. Oganessian and colleagues at Dubna Laboratories in Russia. A ²⁰⁹Bi…

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Important bismuth compounds

Bismuth(III) carbonate dioxide : (bismuthyl carbonate; Bi2O2CO3) A white solid prepared by mixing solutions of bismuth nitrate and ammonium carbonate. It contains the (BiO)+ ion.

Bismuth(III) chloride (bismuth trichloride; BiCl3) A white deliquescent solid. It can be prepared by direct combination of bismuth and chlorine. Bismuth(III) chloride dissolves in excess dilute hydrochloric acid to form a clear liquid, but if diluted it produces a…

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important beryllium compounds

Beryllium carbonate (BeCO₃) , molecular weight: 69.021 g/mol , melting point: 54 °C  . It is An unstable solid prepared by prolonged treatment of a suspension of beryllium hydroxide with carbon dioxide. The resulting solution is evaporated and filtered in an atmosphere of carbon dioxide. This compound is toxic, Irritant and dangerous for the environment. Beryllium chloride (BeCl₂), molecular weight 79.9182 g/mol , density 1.899 g/cm², melting point 399 °C . It…

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Benzaldehyde (Benzenecarbaldehyde)

A yellow organic oil with a formula C7H6O2 and with a distinct almondlike odor. The molecular weight is  and density 1.2659 g/cm3  , melting point is 122 °C . Benzaldehyde undergoes the reactions characteristic of aldehydes and may be synthesized in the laboratory by the usual methods of aldehyde synthesis. It is used as a food flavoring and in the manufacture of dyes and antibiotics, and can be readily manufactured by the chlorination…

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