Simplified chemistry- Matter notes (card)

 

 

MATTER

1. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

2. CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

1. Properties which can be observed without changing the substance into something different. Color, odor, hardness, density, luster, state, conductivity, solubility, boiling and melting points

2. A chemical property is observed when a substance changes into a new substance. Iron forms rust in air & water; gasoline bums in oxygen.

1. PHYSICAL CHANGE

2. CHEMICAL CHANGE

1. Substance changes form or state only.  Boiling, melting, freezing, dissolving, grinding, cutting

2. Where new substances are formed with new chemical and physical properties. Oxygen & hydrogen form water; sodium & chlorine form salt (sodium chloride)

LIST THE THREE STATES OF MATTER IN ORDER OF INCREASING DENSITY.

gas: neither definite shape nor volume

liquid: definite volume; takes shape of container

solid: definite size and shape

PHASE

TWO EXAMPLES

A sharply defined, uniform region in a mixture.

examples- oil & vinegar in salad dressing; ice & water in a frozen pond

DENSITY

GENERAL EQUA TION AND THREE STANDARD UNITS

The mass of a unit volume of a substance.

Density = mass/volume g/mL g/L kg/L

CALCULATE THE DENSITY OF A ROCK WITH MASS = 10 g AND VOLUME = 5mL

density = mass/volume density = 10 g/5 mL = 2 g/mL

ELEMENT

LIST SOME EXAMPLES

A substance composed of identical atoms.

gold, silver, oxygen, hydrogen, lead, chlorine, helium, iron, copper, fluorine, arsenic

COMPOUND

LIST SOME EXAMPLES

Substance composed of two or more different elements chemically combined. For example:

WATER- H₂O

SALT – NaCl

SUGAR – C₆H₁₂O₆

AMMONIA – NH₃

MIXTURE

LIST SOME EXAMPLES

A combination of substances held together by physical means.

(Dirt, milk, soup, saltwater, granite)

HOMOGENEOUS & HETEROGENEOUS MIXTURES , GIVE EXAMPLES

Homogeneous mixtures are uniform in composition. (Air, meta/ alloy, salt water)

Heterogeneous mixtures are not uniform in composition. (Dirt, spaghetti sauce)

SYMBOLS FOR:

1) BARIUM.

2) BERYLLIUM

3) PLATINUM

4) ARSENIC

5) TIN

1) Ba

2) Be

3) Pt

4) As

5) Sn

SYMBOLS FOR:

1) SODIUM

2) POTASSIUM

3) CALCIUM

4) HYDROGEN

5) MAGNESIUM

1) Na

2) K

3) Ca

4) H

5) Mg

NAMES FOR:

1) Fe

2) Co

3) Ni

4) Cu

5) Zn

1) iron

2) cobalt

3) nickel

4) copper

5) zinc

SYMBOLS FOR:

1) SILVER

2) GOLD

3) MERCURY

4) ALUMINUM

5) LEAD

1) Ag

2) Au

3) Hg

4) Al

5) Pb

NAMES FOR:

1) C

2) Si

3) N

4) P

5) O

1) carbon

2) silicon

3) nitrogen

4) phosphorous

5) oxygen

SYMBOLS FOR:

1) SULFUR

2) FLUORINE

3) CHLORINE

4) BROMINE

5) IODINE

1) S

2) F

3) Cl

4) Br

5) I

NAMES FOR:

1) He

2) Ne

3) Ar

4) Kr

5) U

1) helium

2) neon

3) argon

4) krypton

5) uranium

EINSTEIN’S LA W OF CONSERVATION OF MASS-ENERGY

The sum-total of mass and energy remains constant in a reaction but mass and energy may be interconverted.

E = mc²

E = energy; m = mass c = speed of light

IDENTIFY AS ELEMENT, COMPOUND OR MIXTURE: SAND, AIR, GOLD, WATER, SALT, HYDROGEN

SAND-  mixture

AIR-  mixture

GOLD-  element

WATER-  compound

SALT-  compound

HYDROGEN-  element

 

 

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