جميع المواضيع المتعلقة بـ ‘bond’

 

Introduction to Organic chemistry: Chapter 2 NOTES

Introduction to Organic chemistry: Chapter 2 NOTES Acids and Bases

A great many organic reactions are acid–base reactions. Many organic reactions are catalyzed by proton-donating acids, such as H3O+ and CH3OH2+. Others are catalyzed by Lewis acids, such as AlCl3 .

2.1 What Are Arrhenius Acids and Bases? According to Arrhenius definitions, an acid is a substance that dissolves in water to produce H+ ions, and a base…

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ملخص الفصل الرابع :أنواع التفاعلات الكيميائية و العلاقات الكمية للمحاليل من كتاب الكيمياء للعالم زومدال Chapter 4 notes: Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry , Chemistry Zumdahl

ملخص الفصل الرابع :أنواع التفاعلات الكيميائية و العلاقات الكمية للمحاليل من كتاب الكيمياء للعالم زومدال Chapter 4 notes: Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry , Chemistry Zumdahl

الكيمياء العامة 1 ، الكيمياء العامة 101 ، General Chemistry

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CHEMICAL ENERGETICS

Internal energy: The energy stored in a fixed amount of a substance (atom or molecule) is known as its internal energy. It is denoted by the sign E.

Change in internal energy: It is the difference in the internal energies of the product and the reactant species taking part in a chemical reaction at constant volume. It is denoted by ΔE.

ΔE = Ep – Er

Where,     …

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Hydrogen bond

Hydrogen bond: It is a bond formed between a hydrogen atom attached to a highly electrovalent atom (F,O,N) and another highly electronegative atom of the same or different molecule and having a lone pair of electrons.

Condition for hydrogen bonding :

(i) The electronegative atom attached to the hydrogen should be small.

(ii) The electronegativity of the atoms…

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Difference between σ and π bonds

Difference between σ and π bonds

σ bond

π bond

(i) The orbitals overlap along their axes.

(ii) The overlap is quite appreciable and the bond formed is a strong bond.

(iii) s-orbitals can parti­cipate in the bond formation.

(iv) In case of p-orbitals, the participating lobe is stretc­hed and the  size of the other lobe is reduced.

(v) The σ-bond is…

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Chemical Bonding

Chemical bond: The attractive force which holds together the constituent atoms of chemical compounds is called chemical bond.

Combination of atoms: It. is universal law of nature that systems with lower energy are more stable. So atoms combine to form a molecule because it has a· lower energy i.e., more stable.

Modern concept of chemical bonding: The formation -of a chemical bond between two atoms depends upon the…

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