أكتوبر 16th, 2018

 

Alkyne

Alkyne One of a group of organic compounds containing a carbon-to-carbon triple-bond linkage (-C≡C-). They are termed acetylenes or alkynes. While exhibit­ing many of the characteristics of alkenes as regards unsaturation, the acetylenes have many unique properties. Since the bonding in alkyne molecules is linear. R-C≡C-R, cis-trans isomerism is not possible. In the simplest alkyne, acetylene (HC≡CH), or in monosubstituted acetylenes, the hydrogen attached to triply bonded carbon…

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Alkylation-petroleum

Alkylation (petroleum) In the petroleum industry, a chemical process in which an alkene (ethylene, propylene, and so forth) and a hydrocarbon, usually 2-methylpropane, are combined to produce a higher-molecular-weight and higher­carbon-number product. The product has a higher octane rating and is used to improve the quality of gasoline-range fuels. The process was originally developed during World War II to produce high-octane aviation gasoline. Its current main application is…

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Alkene

Alkene One of the class of acyclic hydrocarbons containing one or more carbon-to­carbon double bonds. Alkenes (also called olefins) and alkynes (also called acetylenes) together constitute the family of organic compounds called unsaturated hydrocarbons, since they contain less than the number of hydrogens found in the corresponding saturated compound, alkane. When the double bond is present in a nonaromatic ring (alicyclic hydrocarbon), the compound is termed a cycloalkene….

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Alkane

Alkane A compound with the general formula CnH2n+2· Alkanes are open-chain (aliphatic or noncyclic) hydrocarbons with no multiple bonds or functional groups. They consist of tetrahedral carbon atoms, up to 105 carbons or more in length. The C-C bonds are formed from sp3 orbitals, and there is free rotation around the bond axis.

Alkanes provide the parent names for all other aliphatic compounds in systematic nomenclature. Alkanes are…

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alkaloid

Alkaloid A cyclic organic compound that contains nitrogen in a negative oxidation state and is of limited distribution among living organisms. Over 10,000 alkaloids of many different structural types are known; and no other class of natural products possesses such an enormous variety of structures. Therefore, alkaloids are difficult to differentiate from other types of organic nitrogen-containing compounds.

Simple low-molecular-weight derivatives of ammonia, as well as polyamines and…

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