نوفمبر 27th, 2013

 

Solubility product

Solubility product: The product of concentrations of ions in saturated solution of an electrolyte at a given tempera­ture is constant and is known as solubility product. For silver chloride, the equilibrium is formulated as follows.

Undissolved salt ⇋ ions in solution

AgCl(s) = Ag+(aq)+ Cl (aq)

K =

The concentration of the undissolved salt is constant (say k) at a particular temperature regardless of…

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Le-Chatelier principle

Le-Chatelier principle: if an equilibrium system is subjected to a change, reaction will occur in such a way as to counter act the imposed change.

Example. Manufacture of Ammonia:  N3 (g) + H2(g) → 2NH3(g) ; ΔH = -93.6kJ.

(i) Effect of pressure: The increases in pressure causes the-equilibrium to shift from left to right. Therefore forward reaction is favored. The forward reaction is accompanied by a decrease…

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Chemical Equilibrium

Chemical equilibrium: “A reversible reaction occur with the rate of the forward reaction equal to the backward reaction.”  Such an equilibrium is called chemical equilibrium, the two opposing processes involve a change of chemical species. Moreover the composition of the reactant and products does not change with time (if temperature, concen­tration etc. remain unaltered because the amount of products. formed at .a given time is equal to that…

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CHEMICAL ENERGETICS

Internal energy: The energy stored in a fixed amount of a substance (atom or molecule) is known as its internal energy. It is denoted by the sign E.

Change in internal energy: It is the difference in the internal energies of the product and the reactant species taking part in a chemical reaction at constant volume. It is denoted by ΔE.

ΔE = Ep – Er

Where,     …

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